AGDAM

Agdam borders on Aghjabedi, Tartar, Barda, Kalbajar, Agdere (former Mardakert), Askeran, Khojavend (former Martuni) and Fuzuli regions.
The center of the region Agdam city is in 358 km distance from Baki, 3 km distance from the Gargar river, in the south-west of Garabagh meadow.
Agdam was the city of heavy, light and food industries, developed agriculture.
Machine-tool equipment, aero-cosmic and communication instruments, tractor-automobile reparring, asphalt, cannery, butter-dairy, cocoon eggs, wine and mechanized bakery plants, carpet factory, grain-collection, building-materials, meat-supply enterprises, two railway stations and an airport, automobiles technical service stations, personal-sevice shop enterprise, electric station, agriculture, Agriculture Mechanization and Electrization technical schools, Musical technical school named after Uzeyir Hajibayov, Agdam State Dram Theatre were functioning.
1700 ha of the whole territory was forest land, 91,3 ha fit for agriculrute. Basic tendency of agriculture was vine –growing, cotton-growing, and cattle-breading.
In February, 1988 Agdam was also involved in the war broken out by Armenia to join Nagorni-Garabagh to Armenia. Very great hardship was laid on the shoulders of the inhabitants of Agdam from the very beginning of the war.
When thousands of Azerbaijanians living in Armenia were forced to leave their historic places in 1988, they took refuge in Agdam. Later Nagorni Garabagh inhabitants faced with the same fate and they were settled in Agdam as well. These people became refugees and IDPs (Internal Displaced persons). Armenians were not satisfied with occupying Nagorni Garabagh only, in 1992 the whole territories on the border of it were captured.
Armenian separist power chose Agdam as their next target after they had occupied Shusha, Lachin, Kalbajar with the support and direct participation of foreign countries. The Armenians began large- scaled operation to occupy the region Agdam. Their armed-attack broke out on June 11, 1993 and completed wirth the occupation of Agdam on July 23, 1993. So Agdam was captured by storm as Armenians had planned beforehand. The military agression went on till May 12, 1994 and 846,7 kv.km of the territory was occupied (77, 4 % of the territory) by Armenian separists. Armenians “perfomed” unbelievable brutality in occupied Agdam and its 87 villages – the territory capured was plundered and destroyed completely.
During the furious and bloody battles for the deffence of Agdam that lasted more than 5 years, there were increadble numbers of victoms and loss. More than 5 thousand brave Azerbaijan sons were killed, thousands of people became physically disabled, more than 126 thousand inhabitants were driven out of their native lands and have become refugees in their own country.

HISTORY OF AGDAM

Agdam, one of the ancient territories of Azerbaijan is considered to be the heart of Garabagh and its history goes to ancient times. In accordandce to archeological excavations it has been proved that the territory was the primeval men dwelling. The famous archeologist Ideal Narimanov discovered the fact that the primeval men first inhabited in this territory 6-8 thousands years ago, in the Eneolith Ages (in VI-IV centuries BC) and were familiar with ancient husbandry and cattle-breeding culture. Number of monuments on smeltery, pottery, jeweller’s art and other fields were discovered concerning to the Eneolith and middle Bronze Ages in ancient dwelling territories of Agdam. In the mid of 1980s years grandiose kurgan found near the village Sarichoban belonging to the Bronze and Iron Ages (in XIV-XIII BC) is very valuable historic monument. As the teritory of Adgam was situated in Garabagh which surrounded the Kichick (Small) Caucasus montains, the plains between the Kur and Araz rivers, the culture established in the ancient times in this territory was called called Kur-Araz, Khojali -Gadabey culture by our scientists. The great Azerbaijan archeologist Rashid Goyushov wrote in his book “ Journey to the past of Garabagh” that the first dwellings were appeared here 3–4 thousand years ago. One of such dwellings was on Uzerrlicktepe (hill), on Agdam-Agjabedy highway. The west part of the hill is cemetery. Many cultural monument remainders were found in the destroyed part of the hill belonging to 3-4 yhousands years ago while constructing Agdam-Agjabedy highway. olmuşdur.
According to the historical resources 26 tribes existed in ancient Albania territory and the Gargarlar, the most civilized of themsettled down along the river Gargar in the territory of Agdam
In the times of the Albanian ruler Vachag III (493-510 years) the ministers of religion held an assembly with feodal lords in Agund (the territory of present Agdam ) in 498 to spread Christianity. This assembly was the most significant one in that time.
Devastating military marches of the Arabians’ beginning from the mid of VII century, the Mongolians’ from the beginning of XIII century, the Teymurians’ from the end of XIV century dealt crushing knock out blow to all-round develeopment of Azerbaijan. Many cities and villages were ruined during those millitary attacks. Agdam was also damaged by the occupants.It is supposed that as a result of the city being ruined the inhabitantsof Agdam were obliged to leave their lands and a new city was founded in the territory of present Agdam.. This version seems to be more convincing from the historical point of view. As we mentioned above Gavurgala (Agdam) dwelling existed till X-XI centuries and later no information was given about its existance in any resources. The reason of this was that the city was rebuilt not in previous territory (on the bank of Khachinchay), but near the bank of Tartarchay. And the city was called not Aguen, but Agdam. We don’t have the exact information and no resources to rely on when the city started to be called Agdam. We can only say that this substitution might coincidence with XI-XII centuries and after those times the name of Agdam began to be mentioned.
The monograph “Azerbaijan Atabeys Power” by Academician Ziya Bunyadov says that in early XIII century the troops of Jalaleddin, Kharesimshah Mahammad’s son, were got scattered by the mongolians and they settled down near the Gargar river. In accordance to the other resources it is said that in 1402 , Amir Teymur returned to Azerbaijan and stayed in Agdam with his troops after he had defeated Ottoman Sultan Bayazid I in Ankara battle. After two years, on March 27, 1404 Amir Teymur returned from Agdam to Samargand. Some researchers say that the ethymology of the word Agdam is the combination of two words–”ag”(white), “dam” (roof). But others try to prove that its name has the link with Garabagh khannet, especially with Panahali khan, existed in XVIII century. As the rof of the dome that was built by Panahali khan in the place called “Imaret” was white peole called it “Agdam” (white roof). But archeological findings in this territory prove its history going to ancient times.
During the soviet power theancient kurgans were destryed and knocked down to develop vine and cotton-growing in this territory.
The names of the places along the river Gargar have the connection with the Turkish and Huns tribes lived there in ancient times. For example, Askeran (Aski—ancient, Aran — lowland) in Khankendi region, Aranzemin and so on.
There were a lot of noble stocks who played very significant role in the history of Azerbaijan. One of them is the Javanshirler kith.They came from the Turkish-Oguz tribes and their name go to XI century. The Javanshirler had huge plot of lands and villages , mansions in Shusha, Agjebedi, Barda, Tartar, Jabrayil, Zangilan regions of Garabagh.Mirza Jamal Javanshir, Ahmed bey Javanshir, the authors of “Garabaghname” consider the Javanshirler tribe to belong to Turkish-mongolians family who were Hulaky sultans. In “Rovzatus-Shafa” by Rzagulu khan Hidayat it is said that Panahali khan who laid the foundation of Garabagh khannet belongs to the noble family of Hulaki khan’s (1246 -1265) granddson Argun khan(1284-1291).
Concerning to the facts mentioned above we can say that 99 % names of the villages, valleys, hills, mountains, springs, plains being situated along the rivers Tartarchay and Khachin in Garabagh were Turkish in.origin. The dwellers living in Agdam territory were Turkish in origin as well.

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