SHUSHA

GEOGRAPHY
20% of the territory consists of forestes. Shusha was occupied on May 8, 1992. The centre is the city of Shusha. Before the occupation there were 30 villages in the territory.
Its territory is mountainous.(the Garabagh mountain chain). The highest peak is Boyuk (Big)Kirs mountain (2725 m). The Keshledag pass is in Shusha. Yura and Chalk deposits have mainly been spread here. The territory is rich with different kinds of building material’s deposits and mineral springs sush as Turshsu(Sour water), Shirlan and so on.. Şirlan). Mild warm and cold arid winter climate types concern to the most parts of the territory quraq keçən mülayim isti Avarage temperature in January is between 1-4 C degree below zero and 16- 19 C degree above zero in July. Avarage amount of yearly rainfall is 700-800mm. The Gargar river flows through the region. The soil is mainly consists of brown mountainous-forest type. High mountainous areas are covered with subulpine and alpine grassland. Low mountainous and foothills territories one can see meadows and kserofit shrubberries on the place of cut forests.
Big scaled settlements are the city of Shusha, Malibeyli and Dashalti villages.
Shusha surface stone deposit , Kecheldag(Lesoqor) clue deposit fit to be used in tile-brick production with 397 thousand m3 reserve; Shusha underground sweet water deposit with 389 thousand m3 \a day operation reserve; Shirlan and Turshsu mineral water deposits with 342 min m3/a day and 70 min m3/a day operation reserve have been occupied by Armenian separists(?).
Dashalti State Nature verdure (plantation of trees and shrubs)
This plantation was established in 1988 to protect rare nature complex in Shusha and Askeran territories and occupied 450 ha area. The plantationhasn’t ben existing since 1992 because of Armenians’ occupation.
On the left bank of the river Gargar in Shusha region there was “Khan magarasi” (cave) which was in the south of Shusha , 1365 m height above the sea level with 114 m length belonging to Titon Age. The cave has ben totally destroyed.
Complex hydrological researches were carried in Shusha in 1984 – 1986 years to get information about underground water reserve in Shusha. As a result of the researches underground water reserves were esetimated according to 6 perspectives of upper and middle watery complexes. Entirely underground water reserve in Shusha was 5,0 thousand m3\a day.

HISTORY

In 1747 Iranian Shah (king) Nadir was killed in Khojasan , so the state formeds by force was collapsed. Central power became weak. About 20 khannets were formed in Safavies’ State territory . One of the giggest Khannest to its territory was Garabakh khannet. The khannet was founded by Panah Ali khan who was from Sarijali tribe in Garabagh and and its capital city was called Panahabad, Gala, and later Shusha. Panah Ali khan came from good stock and belonged to the Javanshirs’ noble family.
The foundation of Shusha castle was laid at the beginning of 1750. It was completly differed from Bayat and Shahbulag castles according to its features, and natural fortification. Before the foundation of Shusha Panah Ali Khan visited the place where he was going to build that castle with his close friends, walked around and found out that the territory was surrounded with precipitous cliffs by three sides.Those precipitous cliffs could be very suitable fortification during enemy’s attacks. The north-east part of the territory was glade in 3 km distance. After getting acquainted with the area Panah Ali Khan gave an order to build the castle here. Panah Ali Khan invited famous masters from Ardabil, Tabriz and other cities for the construction of Shusha castle. During his ruling thick, firm walls were built around the north-west side of the castle,.high towers were constructed. Shusha castle had two gates. They were called “Iravan” and “Ganja” gates. The city gates were opened in the mornings and locked in the evenings Coins first appeared in Panahabad among the khannets. The money (coin) which was called “Panahabad “ money in the honour of Panah Ali Khan was used in Russia, in most cities of Iran, Holland. .After Panah Ali Khan’s tragic death Panahabad was called Shusha. During Panah Ali Khan’s times Shusha was adminstrative, trade and mastery centre of Azerbaijan. Shusha Castle faced with devasteting attacks of Mahammad Hassan Khan Gajar in 1751, Fatali Khan Afshar in 1759, Aga Mahammad Shah Gajar in 1795 and 1797 years. But Shusha Castle could protect and preserve its grandeour honourly. .After Panah Ali Khan’s death his sonIbrahim Khalil khan became the khan of Garabagh]He ruled Garabagh from 1760 to 1806. A great statesman of Ibrahim Khalil Khan’s times Molla Panah Vagif was the vizier of Garabagh khannet and played significant role in foreign and home policy of the khannet and was very close counsellor of the khan. M.P Vagif was also a great poet of his times.
The word Susha also means plateau, pyramide, mountain-rock . Shusha was the mansion of famous tribe being famous as “thirty- twos “ in XVI century. The Mansion is connected with the name of Javanshir, the head of one of the tribes out of 32. The architectural structure of the city is closely connected with the Middle Ages Turkish cities ornaments.
In 1758-1760 years castle fortifications were built near Shusha — Asgaran Castle in the north and Agoglan castle in the east. To settle the capital city Panah Ali Khan he gave the order the inhabitants of other places to be moved to Shusha. Historian Baharli notes that the concreet living place of Shusha inhabitants is Chukhur district area. There were 17 districts in Shusha: Gurdlar, Seyidli, Julfalar, Chukhur, Dordler, Gurdu, Haji Yusifli, Dord Chinar, Gol Gala, Mardinli, Saatli, Kocharli, Mamayi, Khaje Mirjanli, Damirchi, Hamam Gabagi and Teze Mehelle. There was a bathhouse, mosque and spring.

The famous Russian artist A.V.Vereshagin was in Shusha in 1864 and described its beauty in his pictures. M.Y.Lermontov vuisited Shusha, too..

HISTORIC CULTURAL MONUMENTS
The architect of independent Azerbaijan Haydar Aliyev called Shusha the city of monuments. There were 300 historic monuments, 550 ancient houses and reconstructed castle walls with 870 m length in 350 ha reservation in Shusha. 23 historic monuments out of 300 belonged to republic and world scaled monuments. As there were number of monuments here and they were so different from others because of them being variegated gives us evidence to call Shusha a cradle of our rich culture. The majority of these monuments belong to XVIII-XIX centuries. Every house, street, grandiose castle walls, slender minarets, mosques, magnificent castles’ remainders spear about our ancient history.
Shusha “cave” is situated under Jidir duzu (plain). The length of the cave is 125 meter, width 20 meter, height 10 meter. A lot of materials wre found here belonging to VII-IV B.C in 1976.
Upper and Down Giovhar Aga Mosques are magnificant pearls of Moslem Esat.
At the end of XIX century 17 mosques were functioning in Shusha. They were : Yukhari Jame, Ashagi Jame, a mosque in Teze Mehelle, Malibeyli, Gulabli, Shelli, Yusifjanli, Marzali, Khazaristan, Lemberan, Aghjabedi, Khalil Fakhraddinli, Khunashin village mosques.There weremosques in Heyderi, Hamam, Jula, Mariyanli, Rahatli, Damirchi, Haji Mirjanli, Choluchaga, Mahalli, Chukhur, Guyuluq, Dordler Gurdu, Haji Yusifli villages too.
There are two mosques and medrese buildings in Shusha built by Karbalayi Sfi khan Garabaghli. The inscription on the door of the mosque says about it. The name of the architect can be come across on the inscriptions in the mosques in the city centre of Fuzuli region, Agdam, Barda and some blocks of Shusha. All these monuments belong to XIX century.
The caravanserai built by Aga Gahraman Mirsaib oglu (son) in 80s years of XIX century is very attractive. There are 25 rooms in this two-storeyed caravanserai.
Shusha springs deserve attention from the architectural point of view. There are 12 stone origins of the spring built by Kurshud Bany Natavan in 1873. The length of the spring is 15 metre, width 7 metre, height 4 metre.
Shushsa was the tourism and resort center of Azerbaijan letely. Rest houses, sanatoriums, hotels were built in Shusha. A temple was raised on the grave of M.P.Vagif on the way to Jidir duzu in 1979. It was a magnificant monument with more than 18 metre.
Shushsa Mamayi MosqueAshgi and Yukhari (Uper and Down) Msques , Saatli Mosque had been capitally reconstructed before the occupation. The great composer Uzeyir Hajibeyov’s and famous National Singer of USSR Bulbul’s memory houses were established here. After Turkmenchay Treaty ( Feruary10, 1828) a church was built in Shusha in the 70s of XIX century.
There not any single monument in Shusha which concerns to Armenians culture. They try impudently to falsify the history and connect the church built here with their names. This unfortunate nation seem to be unaware about their history. And who are Armenians? They are the reproductions of gipsy and mountain Jewess. They were forced to move and inhabit in Garabagh, Nakhchevan and in the territories of Iravan khannet after Turkmenchay Treaty (Feruary10, 1828).
Shusha was occupied on May 8, 1992 by Armenians. In accordance to the information got by reliable sources these agressors have destroyed and plundered all the historic monuments .
During the occupation 15 ethnographic samples, 5 copper handmade goods, 2 silver swords, 1 stone pot, 20 different jewellers, and other valuable things in Shusha City Museum, 5 valuable ancient carpets, 4 kilims, 5 saddle-bags,
1 ancient oil-lamp, Uzeyir Hajibeyov’s portrait and a number of valuable historic exibits in Garabagh History Museunm were pludered by Armenians. A lot of exibits from Mir Movsum Navvab and Bulbul’s memory houses were plundered by Armenians , too

 

NOTE: 9 villages in Shusha region have remained, 21 villages have been destroyed. Tushsu and Shirlan springs
were sold to businessman Sheykh Yusif Safi, who is Dubay emir’s relative in 2001. The water of both
springs are packed and sent to UAE. Annual income taken from this business is $450 thousand. Some
part of the income is spent on military contingent of fictitious “ Nagorni Garabagh” Republic.

REFERENCES

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